Background In gynecologic cancer survivors, female sexual dysfunction (FSD) remains under-investigated. We attempted to estimate the prevalence of FSD associated with distress in gynecologic cancer survivors using diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria and to identify women at risk for FSD. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of premenopausal women aged 20–50 with various gynecologic cancers at least one year after treatment between January 2017 and December 2019. Data of sociodemographics and physical conditions were collected via face-to-face interview during outpatient clinic visits. The domains we used to define FSD were based on DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. Statistical analysis was carried out using Student’s t test, Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Results A total of 126 gynecologic cancer survivors with a mean age of 42.4 years were included for analysis and 55 of them (43.7%) were diagnosed as having FSD associated with distress based on DSM-5 criteria. More than half of women (65.1%) reported decreased sexual satisfaction after cancer treatment. According to DSM-5 definition, the most common female sexual disorders were sexual interest/arousal disorder (70.9%), followed by genitopelvic pain/penetration disorder (60.0%), and orgasmic disorder (20.0%). In multiple logistic regression model, endometrial cancer diagnosis was the only independent factor predicting less influence of cancer treatment on FSD (OR 0.370; 95% CI 0.160, 0.856). Conclusion The first study to use DSM-5 criteria for estimation of FSD prevalence. This enables clinicians to identify which women are actually needed to seek medical help. A prevalence of 43.7% of FSD associated with distress was found in a group of gynecologic cancer survivors with the most common being sexual interest/arousal disorder. Endometrial cancer survivors were at low risk for developing FSD after treatment.